What are the benefits of drip irrigation?
Our country has adopted a number of normative documents on the development and radical reform of agriculture. At the same time, there is a growing demand for efficient land use, increased productivity, increased incomes, and the production of quality and competitive products for consumption.
However, due to limited water resources, the per capita water supply is declining from year to year. Analyzes show that the need for water is growing over the years. Therefore, we need to appreciate water, use it wisely, widely apply innovative technologies in the industry.
A drip irrigation system is a pressure irrigation system designed to deliver the same amount of water to a plant's root system as needed. According to scientists, one quintal of cotton yields 1.8-1.9 times less water than drip irrigation in a drip irrigation system. With drip irrigation, the root system of the crop is formed normally and the field is evenly moistened. The cost of processing between field rows is reduced.
In drip irrigation, first of all, the soil maintains the optimum moisture required for the plant, the evaporation of water under the influence of sun or wind is prevented, the water maintains the optimum level of soil moisture by moistening the plant root system. The use of drip irrigation creates optimal conditions for the growth, development and fruiting of plants, saving up to 80% of water, depending on the type of crop.
By using this method in the field, the soil does not become clogged and the air circulation of the plant is improved, there is no need to cultivate. Applying mineral fertilizers in liquid form saves up to 50% of fertilizers. The plant is well saturated with nutrients, and drip irrigation irrigates the crop, not the field.
The basic principle of drip irrigation is that the water goes only to the roots of the plant and it is possible to control the growth of the plant. At the same time, the rate of increase in crop yield will reach 15-30%. Eliminates water discharge and increases water use coefficient to 0.98 hectares. To restore and increase the natural fertility of the soil, irrigation water is applied in doses of mineral fertilizers, trace elements and chemical ameliorants.
The use of drip irrigation in horticulture reduces weeds in the field and reduces the cost of weed control. With the introduction of drip irrigation technology through the analysis of many years of scientific research, 50-55 quintals per hectare of cotton, 120-130 tons of corn stalks, 25-32 tons of grain, 130-140 tons of tomatoes, (in the open field) in the greenhouse 500 tons of grapes, 5 tons of grapes, 60 tons of apples and 45 tons of potatoes will be harvested.
The main disadvantages of drip irrigation are that the construction of drip irrigation systems requires large capital investments. The drips become clogged with salt and mud in the water, and the drip irrigation system in the arable lands needs to be cleaned every year, and this system cannot be used in saline areas. The use of drip irrigation technology saves water resources and creates the necessary moisture in the soil, the transfer of water to the part where the root system of the crop is located, and the air-water, nutrient-salt regime for the crop. This method ensures that the irrigation regime meets the water requirements of the plant. Drip irrigation saves 20-80% of water, material resources, manual labor and equipment costs, depending on the type of crop and soil, compared to other irrigation methods.
Until now, only clean distilled water was used in this method. This is the first time that drip irrigation with muddy water has been used in practice. During the experiments, the amount of water was saved by 40 percent. If in normal irrigation the water consumption was 4200 cubic meters per hectare, in drip irrigation the water consumption was 2500 cubic meters per hectare. Based on experimental observations and laboratory analysis, drip irrigation keeps the topsoil relatively soft. There is no loss of water for drainage and filtration in the field. Provides uniform soil moisture on different slopes.
Even small amounts of irrigation can accelerate seedling growth and development. Rising demand for water resources, mitigation of the negative effects of expected water shortages, high yields of crops and the implementation of food programs today require the efficient and rational use of water resources.
In particular, agriculture cannot develop without water resources. Research has been conducted for centuries on how to get high yields from farming with low water consumption. To date, scientists have been conducting a number of studies over the years to create new advanced irrigation technologies by conserving water resources, and we are witnessing high results as a result of their practical application.